采一滴血能否诊断出癌症

最近在日本流传着一条消息,在不久的将来仅需采一滴血,就可以诊断出各种癌症。我搜索各种信息,确认这条消息是真实的。

癌症如果早期发现,早期治疗,生存率是很高的。但问题是,大部人在癌症症状出来前不会主动去体检。

传统的癌症检查方法需先采取病变部位的细胞组织样本,然后用显微镜对样本进行观察,不但费用昂贵,对身体的负担也很大。

血液检查如果在癌症检查领域得到临床应用的话,癌症检查将变得简单,可极大地提高癌症检查的受诊率,有助于癌症的早期发现,早期治疗。

日本国立癌症研究中心花了5年时间,在2019年3月完成了《体液中微RNA检测技术的基础开发》,这项研究成果,确立了通过检查血液中的微RNA来诊断癌症的方法。

研究表明人体中约2700种微RNA和人类的生理机能密切相关,日常生活的疾病和焦虑会使微RNA的构成产生变化。从血液中分离出微RNA,通过分析各种微RNA量的变化来诊断癌症。

对微RNA进行分析可以查出胃癌、食道癌、肺癌等13种癌症。这里列出了主要几种癌症的诊断准确率,阳性代表患病,阴性代表健康。

阳性

阴性

乳癌

97%

83%

胰脏癌

99%

94%

胆道癌

98%

99%

肺癌

99%

99%

胃癌

99%

99%

大肠癌

100%

89%

食道癌

98%

99%

肝癌

99%

95%

卵巢癌

98%

100%

从上面的研究数据可以看出,各种癌症的确诊率都达到九成以上,准确率相当高。

根据这项研究成果,日本东芝公司在2019年11月下旬发布了,仅需一滴血就可以诊断出13种癌症的诊断套件,此诊断套件能在两个小时内以99%的准确率查出癌症。这项技术的最大特点是即使在癌症初期也能准确查出癌症。

东芝从2020年开始临床试验,预计在一两年内在综合体检中得到实际应用。为了得到大范围应用,东芝将把检查费用控制在两万日元左右(约人民币1300左右)。

癌症一直居日本人死亡原因的第一位,2018年有38万日本人死于癌症。日本人一生患癌症的概率很高,男性为62%,女性为47%。

癌症从早期到晚期分为5个级别,级别0~级别4。癌症的早期发现可极大地提高癌症患者的生存率。比如肺癌,级别2的五年生存率为60%,级别0的五年生存率却可以达到97%。目前日本的癌症受诊率仅为三成左右,这项技术将使癌症检查得到普及,促进癌症的早期发现、早期治疗。

最新研究成果表明,尿液中的外来体含有微RNA。从尿液中捕捉外来体,再抽取外来体中的微RNA,通过检查微RNA可以诊断癌症。日本公司ICARiA正着力开发这个技术,在不久的将来,或许通过尿检就可以诊断出癌症,癌症检查将变得更简单。

 

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